Sex Differences and Gender Identity

Sex defines the reproductive system in animals and in plants which reproduce through sexual reproduction. The classification of an animal or a plant into male and female depends on the arrangement of the gonads (sex organs) in their bodies. The structure of an organ refers to its form. In humans, sex is a behavioral trait that determines the reproductive function of a person, either male or female, according to the chromosomal sequence of sex chromosomes inherited from the mother and the father. The somatic cells that form parts of the body do not exist in all individuals and are present at the time of birth.


Sex is not only determined by the presence of external genitalia but also involves the distinction between the genitalia at birth and the differentiation of the genitalia at puberty. The structure of an organ refers to its form. In humans, the male sex determining enzymes have their sites determined at the place where the Y chromosome and the X chromosome meet. According to the usual view, the Y chromosome is coded for male characteristics and the X chromosome for female characteristics.

The definitions of sex and gender differ because, in some cases, they are used to identify a person’s biological sex while in other instances, they are used to distinguish between various physical or behavioral traits that might be considered masculine or feminine. Sex distinctions are often based on these two distinctions. Some of the significant changes in society over the past few decades have contributed to the recent rise in the use of these terms. For example, some cultures and societies have legalized the distinction between male and female at birth. Also, some cultures have allowed certain classes of people to have special status within their communities such as members of the clergy. Because these distinctions are now legally recognized, most individuals have some knowledge about these biological and social concepts.

Despite the significant advancements in modern medicine and in-clinic treatments for various diseases, people still do not know how the body feels good during sex or why some people can have orgasms and others can’t. Although research in recent years has helped to explain why the body responds to sexual stimuli in different ways, more research remains needed. Many of the differences between men and women regarding the feeling of pleasure and orgasm remain unexplained.

Many researchers agree that there may be a sex difference in response to visual stimulation as well as to pressure. Some experts argue that there is only a social sex difference in response to verbal interaction, whereas some researchers believe that the actual physical distinction between male and female sperm is purely genetic. There could be a genetic difference in the speed with which an egg is fertilized, researchers think. However, if this is the case, it would not mean that a woman’s orgasm would be physically different from a man’s orgasm, according to Zimmerman. Furthermore, he emphasizes that sex and gender are not biologically binary as many people tend to believe.

“Men are from Mars and women are from Venus,” Zimmerman states. “If you accept that as an accurate statement, then you can forget about [the famous joke in which an astronaut is told that] the moon is populated by men and women.” As a result, he argues that the moon has nothing to do with the biological differences between men and women that have been studied over the last half century. The sexual differences between the two genders that have been observed and measured over that time, according to Zimmerman, are more cultural factors than anything else. He offers the example of a previous study that found that gay and bisexual men did not have any more vaginal bacterial infections than straight men.